When Chemical Weapons Were First Dropped From the Air, North Russia 1919

Grantham N Russia RE Lib

Lieutenant Donald R Grantham MC RE, holding M Generators adapted as aircraft bombs, Lake Onega seaplane base, 1919. (RE Museum)

The first time chemical weapons were used from aircraft was during British operations against Bolshevik forces around Archangel and Murmansk in 1919. Here is a shorter version of my article on the episode which was published in the Imperial War Museum Review (No. 12, 1999) and is given in full below. (Click each page to enlarge). Scroll to the bottom for more articles.

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Understanding Chemical Warfare in the First World War


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German Yellow Cross mustard gas shell for 105mm howitzer.

Yellow Cross: The advent of Mustard Gas in 1917


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